RPATH, or why lld doesn’t work on NixOS

I’ve learned a thing I wish I didn’t know. As a revenge, I am going to write it down so that you, my dear reader, also learn about this. You probably want to skip this post unless you are interested and somewhat experienced in all of Rust, NixOS, and dynamic linking.


I use NixOS and Rust. For linking my Rust code, I would love to use lld, the LLVM linker, as it is significantly faster. Unfortunately, this often leads to errors when trying to run the resulting binary:

error while loading shared libraries: libbla.so.92:
cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Let’s see what’s going on here!


We’ll be using evdev-rs as a running example. It is binding to the evdev shared library on Linux. First, we’ll build it with the default linker, which just works (haha, nope, this is NixOS).

Let’s get the crate:

$ git clone git@github.com:ndesh26/evdev-rs.git
$ cd evdev-rs

And run the example

$ cargo run --example evtest
    Updating crates.io index
  Downloaded libc v0.2.120
  Downloaded 1 crate (574.7 KB) in 1.10s
   Compiling cc v1.0.73
   Compiling pkg-config v0.3.24
   Compiling libc v0.2.120
   Compiling log v0.4.14
   Compiling cfg-if v1.0.0
   Compiling bitflags v1.3.2
   Compiling evdev-sys v0.2.4
error: failed to run custom build command for `evdev-sys`
  Couldn't find libevdev from pkgconfig

This of course doesn’t just work and spits out humongous error message, which contains one line of important information: we are missing libevdev library. As this is NixOS, we are not going to barbarically install it globally. Let’s create an isolated environment instead, using nix-shell:

with import <nixpkgs> {};
mkShell {
    buildInputs = [

And activate it:

$ nix-shell

This environment gives us two things — the pkg-config binary and the evdev library. pkg-config is a sort of half of a C package manager for UNIX: it can’t install libraries, but it helps to locate them. Let’s ask it about libevdev:

$ pkg-config --libs libevdev
-L/nix/store/62gwpvp0c1i97lr84az2p0qg8nliwzgh-libevdev-1.11.0/lib -levdev

Essentially, it resolved library’s short name (libevdev) to the full path to the directory were the library resides:

$ exa -l /nix/store/62gwpvp0c1i97lr84az2p0qg8nliwzgh-libevdev-1.11.0/lib
libevdev.so -> libevdev.so.2.3.0
libevdev.so.2 -> libevdev.so.2.3.0

The libevdev.so.2.3.0 file is the actual dynamic library. The symlinks stuff is another bit of a C package manager which implements somewhat-semver: libevdev.so.2 version requirement gets resolved to libevdev.so.2.3.0 version.

Anyway, this works well enough to allow us to finally run the example

$ cargo run --example evtest
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.01s
     Running `target/debug/examples/evtest`
Usage: evtest /path/to/device


Ooook, so let’s now do what we wanted to from the begining and configure cargo to use lld, for blazingly fast linking.


The magic spell you need need to put into .cargo/config is (courtesy of @lnicola):

rustflags = ["-Clink-arg=-fuse-ld=lld"]

To unpack this:

  • -C set codegen option link-arg=-fuse-ld=lld.
  • link-arg means that rustc will pass “-fuse-ld=lld” to the linker.
  • Because linkers are not in the least confusing, the “linker” here is actually the whole gcc/clang. That is, rather than invoking the linker, rustc will call cc and that will then call the linker.
  • So -fuse-ld (unlike -C, I think this is an atomic option, not -f use-ld) is an argument to gcc/clang, which asks it to use lld linker.
  • And note that it’s lld rather than ldd which confusingly exists and does something completely different.

Anyhow, the end result is that we switch the linker from ld (default slow GNU linker) to lld (fast LLVM linker).

And that breaks!

Building the code still works fine:

$ cargo build --example evtest
   Compiling libc v0.2.120
   Compiling pkg-config v0.3.24
   Compiling cc v1.0.73
   Compiling log v0.4.14
   Compiling cfg-if v1.0.0
   Compiling bitflags v1.3.2
   Compiling evdev-sys v0.2.4 (/home/matklad/tmp/evdev-rs/evdev-sys)
   Compiling evdev-rs v0.5.0 (/home/matklad/tmp/evdev-rs)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 2.87s

But running the binary fails:

$ cargo run --example evtest
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.01s
     Running `target/debug/examples/evtest`
target/debug/examples/evtest: error while loading shared libraries:
libevdev.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


Ok, what’s now? Now, let’s understand why the first example, with ld rather than lld, can’t work :-)

As a reminder, we use NixOS, so there’s no global folder a-la /usr/lib where all shared libraries are stored. Coming back to our pkgconfig example,

$ pkg-config --libs libevdev
-L/nix/store/62gwpvp0c1i97lr84az2p0qg8nliwzgh-libevdev-1.11.0/lib -levdev

the libevdev.so is well-hidden behind the hash. So we need a pkg-config binary at compile time to get from libevdev name to actual location.

However, as this is a dynamic library, we need it not only during compilation, but during runtime as well. And at runtime loader (also known as dynamic linker (its binary name is something like ld-linux-x86-64.so, but despite the .so suffix, it’s an executable (I kid you not, this stuff is indeed this confusing))) loads the executable together with shared libraries required by it. Normally, the loader looks for libraries in well-known locations, like the aforementioned /usr/lib or LD_LIBRARY_PATH. So we need something which would tell the loader that libevdev lives at /nix/store/$HASH/lib.

That something is rpath (also known as RUNPATH) – this is more or less LD_LIBRARY_PATH, just hard-coded into the executable. We can use readelf to inspect program’s rpath.

When the binary is linked with the default linker, the result is as follows (lightly edited for clarity):

$ readelf -d target/debug/examples/evtest | rg PATH
 0x000000000000001d (RUNPATH)            Library runpath: [

And sure, we see path to libevdev right there!

With rustflags = ["-Clink-arg=-fuse-ld=lld"], the result is different, the library is missing from rpath:

0x000000000000001d (RUNPATH)            Library runpath: [

At this point, I think we know what’s going on. To recap:

  • With both ld and lld, we don’t have problems at compile time, because pkg-config helps the compiler to find the library.
  • At runtime, the library linked with lld fails to find the shared library, while the one linked with ld works.
  • The difference between the two binaries is the value of rpath in the binary itself. ld somehow manages to include rpath which contains path to the library. This rpath is what allows the loader to locate the library at runtime.

Curious observation: dynamic linking on NixOS is not entirely dynamic. Because executables expect to find shared libraries in specific locations marked with hashes of the libraries themselves, it’s not possible to just upgrade .so on disk for all the binaries to pick it up.

Who sets rpath?

At this point, we have only one question left:


Why do we have that magical rpath thing in one of the binaries. The answer is simple — to set rpath, one passes -rpath /nix/store/... flag to the linker at compile time. The linker then just embeds the specified string as rpath field in the executable, without really inspecting it in any way.

And here comes the magical/hacky bit — the thing that adds that -rpath argument to the linker’s command line is the NixOS wrapper script! That is, the ld on NixOS is not a proper ld, but rather a shell script which does a bit of extra fudging here and there, including the rpath:

$ cat (which ld)

# Three tasks:
#   1. Find all -L... switches for rpath
#   2. Find relocatable flag for build id.
#   3. Choose 32-bit dynamic linker if needed
declare -a libDirs
        case "$prev" in

    for dir in ${libDirs+"${libDirs[@]}"}; do
                extraAfter+=(-rpath "$dir")
/nix/store/sga0l55gm9nlwglk79lmihwb2bpv597j-binutils-2.35.2/bin/ld \
    ${extraBefore+"${extraBefore[@]}"} \
    ${params+"${params[@]}"} \

There’s a lot of going on in that wrapper script, but the relevant thing to us, as far as I understand, is that everything that gets passed as -L at compile time gets embedded into the binary’s rpath, so that it can be used at runtime as well.

Now, let’s take a look at lld’s wrapper:

$ cat (which lld)
@@@@@@@TT@@pHpH<<E8o	8o	wN:HgPHwHpp@p@ @@  Stdpp@p@ Ptd@G@@QtdRtd/nix/store/4s21k8k7p1mfik0b33r2spq5hq7774k1-glibc-2.33-108/lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2GNUGNU r	\X
0F                                                                                                                                                                        <C5`
Bx	rZ1V3	y

Haha, nope, there’s no wrapper! Unlike ld, lld on NixOS is an honest-to-Bosch binary file, and that’s why we can’t have great things! This is tracked in issue #24744 in the nixpkgs repo :)


So….. turns out there’s more than one lld on NixOS. There’s pkgs.lld, the thing I have been using in the post. And then there’s pkgs.llvmPackages.bintools package, which also contains lld. And that version is actually wrapped into an rpath-setting shell script, the same way ld is.

That is, pkgs.lld is the wrong lld, the right one is pkgs.llvmPackages.bintools.